Internal Code: IAH263
Literature Review Assignment Help:
Water is a common chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. Availability of water for cleansing is directly to control or elimination of disease. While the world's population tripled in the 20th century, the use of renewable water resources has grown six-fold. Within the next fifty years, the world population will increase by another 40 to 50%. This population growth, coupled with industrialization and urbanization will result in an increasing demand for water and will have serious consequences on the environment (World Water Council, 2008).
Water covers about two-thirds of the earth's surface. But most is too salty for use. Only 2.5% of the world's water is not salty and two-thirds of that is locked up in the icecaps and glaciers (Wikipedia, 2010).
Water pollution is a major problem in global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrhea sickness every day. Some 90% of China cities suffer from some degree of water pollution, and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. In addition to the acute problems of water developing countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well.
Activated carbons can be produced from virtually any type of carbonaceous materials such as coconut shell, palm shell, nut shell, oil-palm shells, agricultural wastes, and many others. A number of technologies have been developed over the years to remove organic matter (expressed chemical oxygen demand, COD) from industrial wastewater. The most important technologies include coagulation/flocculation process (Amuda et al., 2006;Bromley et al., 2002), membrane filtration (Galambosetal., 2004), oxidation process (Marrtinez et al., 2003;Peres et al., 2004). These methods are generally expensive, complicated, time consuming and requires skilled personnel. The high cost of coal-based activated carbons has stimulated the search for cheaper alternatives.
The preparation of activated carbon generally involves two steps:
1. Carbonization of the raw material in the absence of oxygen and activation of the carbonized products with water and/or Carbon dioxide.
2. Volatile matters are released in the carbonization step, and the remaining solid carbon structure is generally called as char. In the following activation step, char reacts with activating agents to form activated carbon (AC) with improved pore structure and surface properties.
However, well tailored activated carbon for specific application and having a specific surface area of 500m 2 /g or larger cannot be easily obtained by simply carbonizing the carbonaceous materials or biomass above, and because of its ready availability and stability improduction, much has been done on coal for the industrial production of activated carbon(Zhang et al, 2007).
Nowadays, water quality has become the popular issue in this worldwide. A lot of people need the best quality of water for their daily lives. Therefore, it needs treatment to make it safe for human and all living things in this world. There are many types of treatment that can improve water quality. One of the treatments is using activated carbon as a wastewater pollutant removal. Activated carbon comes from many types like sawdust, rice husk, wood, coconut shell etc. The present study focused on activated carbons from coconut shell and wood.
1.2 Problem Statement
Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of death and diseases. One way to reduce water pollution is by using activated carbon for wastewater treatment. Two different activated carbons have been used to the adsorption of water pollutants in Jeedimetla water effluents.
The main objectives of this study are:
The objective of this study is to compare the adsorption efficiency of coconut shell and wood based activated carbon in the treatment of a pharmaceutical industrial wastewater for the removal of organic matter. Evaluating adsorption kinetics using Freundlich adsorption isotherm equation for coconut shell based activated carbon and Wood activated carbon.
Scope of study can be listed as follows:-
i. Water samples have been collected from Jeedimetla effluent wastewater plant
ii. The water samples were analyzed in KKB Micro Testing Laboratory, Mallapur,ECIL to determine their characteristic based on the water quality parameters; Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, pH, Total Suspended Solid, Turbidity, Oil and Grease, and Ammonia Nitrogen.
iii. Collection of two activated carbon samples from M/s ACTIVATED CARBON INDIA PVT LTD, Hyderabad.
iv. The water samples are treated using activated carbon to identify their effectiveness and performances.
Literature Review Assignment:
This literature review explains all the information and relevant data regarding this research and briefly discussed and supported with all articles reviews extracted from journals, references book, thesis, e-book, internet articles and other relevant sources.
2.2 Water Pollution
Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet, and 1,000 Indian children die of diarrhea sickness every day. Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution, and nearly 500million people lack access to safe
thinking water. In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well. In the most recent national report on water quality in the United States, 45 percent of assessed stream miles, 47 percent of assessed lake acres, and32 percent of assessed bay and estuarine square miles were classified as polluted (Wikipedia, 2010).
2.2.1 Types of Pollution
Surface water and groundwater have often been studied and managed as separate resources, although they are interrelated. Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two categories based on their origin (Wikipedia, 2010).
220.127.116.11 Point source pollution
Point source pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete conveyance, such as a pipe or ditch. Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain. The U.S. Clean Water Act (CWA) defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes. The CWA definition of point source was amended in 1987 to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites (Wikipedia,2010).