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SOC355 - Sociology of Law And Order - Personal Mobility Devices (PMD) & “MPs Express Case Study & Report Writing - Law Assignment Help

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Read this media report on the laws against errant PMD users: 

“MPs express concern over livelihoods of food delivery riders, jail terms for underage PMD  users” aIn 2017, the Active Mobility Act was passed to ensure the safe use of public paths and the use  of Personal Mobility Devices (PMD). (Read more at  On 5th Nov 2019, the ban on e-scooters from footpaths took effect. (Read more at  This came in the wake of several reports about people being injured as a result of errant PMD  users and the increasing criticisms of such users in the local media. However, there were a  sizable number of PMD users who were delivery riders for whom the PMD was a tool for their  livelihood. This section of the population voiced their dissent over the new law. (Read: 

Using relevant concepts you learnt from weeks one and two on the social construction of crime  and the social contract theory, develop a sociological explanation of how this law came into  being, the responses by segments of the population for and against this law and how the state  negotiated between the two.  

On the enforcement of this law, examine (based on media reports) how the cases were handled  and the theory of punishment that guided this response, by answering the following questions:  

a. Critically analyse if the model of punishment was effective.


SOC355 Tutor-Marked Assignment 01-03 January 2021 Semester 

b. If a model of punishment based on restorative justice were to be applied instead, how could  this have been implemented and how could its effectiveness be tested?  

c. Examine the cited articles as well as any other media reports to assess if there were any  instances of moral panic ensuing from these reports on errant PMD users and why they  were or were not present. You may wish to also examine public discussion forums/threads  on this topic to demonstrate any evidence of deviance amplifications and moral panics.  


Student notes 

  •  You should use course concepts and/or theories that are relevant to your discussion. You  are not limited from using material found in later segments of the course should you find  any of them applicable.  
  •  When examining the process of how the law came into effect and critical sentiments/voices,  you may examine alternate news sites and social media. However, you need to articulate  the limitations of these sources of information when citing them. You must also attempt  to take an actual look at the law itself and its incremental changes by going into Singapore  Statues Online website at
  •  Your choice of examples should focus on Singapore’s context but may also include  comparative illustrations of others.  
  •  You must use credible references such as your course material, to define key concepts  and/or theories. You are also expected to do additional research using academic journals  (from databases such as JSTOR, SOCIndex and others in the library’s e-resources) and  credible news sources from Factiva, Newslink, etc.



Read the following journal article on youth gang offenders in Singapore: 

Chi Meng Chu, Michael Daffern, Stuart D.M. Thomas, Yaming Ang & Mavis Long (2013).  ‘Criminal Attitudes and Psychopathic Personality Attributes of Youth Gang Offenders in  Singapore’, Psychology, Crime & Law, DOI:10.1080/1068316X.2013.772182 at:  

As well as this article about a former youth gang member: 

Ling, L. B. (2019, October 16). ‘Life After Prison: After 6 Years of being in a gang, he is now  pursuing a future in music’, MOSGTV at:Based on information from both articles and applying three relevant theories on youth  delinquency, answer the following questions: 

a. Hypothesise to what extent deviant attitudes and personality characteristics could have  already been present in local youths joining gangs or whether gang affiliation subsequently  created delinquent attitudes.  

b. Critically analyse the potential impact of these inherent traits leading local youth to join  gangs against societal influences and the role played by a criminogenic environment.  

c. Examine the current approach used in Singapore to deter and rehabilitate delinquent youth.  Stemming from this examination, develop a potential intervention strategy based on local  social control mechanisms and/or any other progressive social control strategies that might  be effective in deterring Singaporean youth from joining gangs and helping to rehabilitate  ex-gang members.  

d. Evaluate how much weight should be given to the idea that such youth were merely  exhibiting youthful exuberance and they will naturally ‘grow out’ of delinquency as they  mature.


Read the following journal article which features an interview with Ulrich Beck – a prominent  German sociologist who came up with conceptions such as “Risk Society,” “Reflexive  Modernisation,” and the “Elevator Effect”.  

Beck talks about a ‘Second Modernity’ in which the focus is no longer purely about conflicts  arising from inequalities but rather the uncertainties of our times and the way society handles  risks. Mass media has not only made these risks more visible to everyone but has also created  a heightened sense of insecurity. There are also actors and groups that capitalise on this politics  of fear. Hobbes’ conceptualisation of the nation state as the patron of security has become a  prominent notion in these uncertain times. This ‘Second Modernity’ is also characterised by  changing social norms and power structures.  

Keeping in mind the insights from this article, do a global scanning of key issues affecting  Singapore’s security landscape from the start of 2020 till today. Base your research on local  media reports, political statements and credible studies done on this topic. Identify three acts  of deviance arising from these issues that the state and the general population have stressed  as a priority, and answer the following questions: 

a. Evaluate the extent to which the state and Singapore’s criminal justice system have  responded to these acts of deviance/crimes by a policy of maintaining social order through  laws and a conservative crime control approach. Apply relevant sociological perspectives  from conflict perspectives, right realism, and administrative criminology to support your  inferences.  

b. Conduct a comparative study of crime prevention approaches used to address these new  acts of deviance/crimes in Singapore against approaches used to deal with similar acts in  another country. 

c. Conceptualise a crime prevention approach and model of policing or tweaks to the present  criminal justice system that you feel would better address these new forms of  deviance/criminality arising from the ‘Second Modernity’ that Singapore is potentially  facing. 


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