Global Disability Adjusted Life Years - Epidemiology Assignment Help

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  1. What percent of global Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) did depression account for in 2017?
    What percent of global Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) did depression account for in 2017?
    Why are these figures so different? 


The following questions relate to a Mendelian Randomization study of physical activity and incident depression.  

Choi KW, Chen CY, Stein MB, Klimentidis YC, Wang MJ, Koenen KC, Smoller JW; Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.  Assessment of Bidirectional Relationships Between Physical Activity and Depression Among Adults: A 2-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study.  

The journal article is available in the Assignment 2 folder of Readings Online. You will need to read the abstract and the first three paragraphs of the Introduction.  You might also want to read the Discussion.  The rest of the article is complex, and you don’t need to read it to answer the questions. 


In the section of the abstract labelled Importance, the authors wrote:

“Increasing evidence shows that physical activity is associated with reduced risk for depression, pointing to a potential modifiable target for prevention. However, the causality and direction of this association are not clear; physical activity may protect against depression, and/or depression may result in decreased physical activity.”

  1. What types of studies would give rise to uncertainty about the “direction of this association”?  Explain your answer. [2 marks]

In the article’s Introduction section, the authors state: “prospective studies have demonstrated associations between higher levels of physical activity and decreased risk for later depression”.  These prospective studies are cohort studies.

Why did the authors write the sentence that way (i.e., using the term “association”) rather than writing something like “prospective studies have demonstrated that higher levels of physical activity decrease risk for later depression”?


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  • Posted on : June 15th, 2019
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