Environmental Factors - Six Causes of Perceptual Errors - Management Assignment Help
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Central University of Technology
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Assignment Task :
Schools’ structural workplace conditions (e.g. learning resources and professional development policies) and cultural workplace conditions (e.g. school leadership, teachers’ collaborative culture) have been found to affect the way teachers learn. It is not so much the objective conditions that support or impede professional learning, but the way teachers perceive those workplace conditions that influence teachers’ learning. Not much is known, however, about how teachers’ perceptions relate to the way they direct their own learning. Using a sense-making approach, we explored how four teachers’ perceptions of cultural and structural workplace conditions were related with how they direct their own learning. Teachers view their workplace as enabling or constraining their learning. The content of teachers’ learning goals is related to their perception of shared vision and professional dialogue in their schools and driven by individual classroom-based concerns. Furthermore, teachers’ perception of cultural workplace conditions and supportive leadership practices seem to be more important influences for teachers’ self-directed learning than their perception of structural.
Based on the above-mentioned case study, answer the following questions.
Question 1: 
1.1. Define perceptions (2)
1.2 Which environmental factors are perceived to influence teachers learning?
1.3 What are teacher’s perceptions regarding their learning?
1.4 Mention any two factors that influences teacher’s perceptions regarding their learning?
1.5 Perceptual errors within a workplace could create conflicts. Perceptual error is a psychological concept which refers to making judgements based on shortcuts. List and discuss six causes of perceptual errors:
Question 2: 
2.1 Describe the nature of roles using relevant example (3) 2.2 Read carefully through the following case study and answer the questions that follow: As Hambrick and Mason reported more than two decades ago, top managers formulates strategies, as well as interpreting and responding to strategic issues. The upper echelon theory recognizes that managers’ demographic traits are indicators of their underlying attitudes, experiences, perspectives and cognitive schemas, which significantly condition their strategic decisions. It is important that managerial approach should yield results and improve our understanding of the relationships between top management team (TMT) characteristics, strategic decision-making and firm performance. In practice, strategic issue diagnosis occurs in a complicated context in which several aspects and goals require attention, and multiple agents are involved and affected. Given this context, some decisions need to be taken by managers immediately, whereas others may require years to be reached. In fact, top managers may examine various strategic issues to maintain a continuous circle of issue interpretation while they work on potential solutions Because of the complexity and strategic relevance of strategic issue diagnosis processes, the literature proposes different models to capture their diverse nature. Generalist or specialist profiles of experiences may condition strategic issue diagnosis in different ways. For example, some studies have confirmed that specialization makes individuals better at information processing (Bolton and Dewatripont, 1994). From a similar perspective, other authors argue that experts are likely to make less precise forecasts in their own areas of expertise than non-expert managers (Tetlock, 2005; Buyl et al., 2011). Despite the importance of specialization, the strategy literature recognizes that general experiences give managers a higher strategic perspective (Finkelstein and Hambrick, 1989), whereas those with long functional experience take narrower perspectives and tend to follow existing policies, reducing the flexibility of decision-making processes (Geletkanycz and Black, 2001). In addition, broader experiences also foster information sharing and integration between TMT members (Buyl et al., 2011). 2.2.1 Describe the expected roles of the manager? (2)
2.2.2 Describe the perceived role of the manager?
2.2.3 What role profile should managers hold?
2.2.4 What traits should the managers display in their role?
2.2.5 Provide managerial roles that managers have played and give example
2.2 6 Define role conflict.
2.2.7 How can role conflict be avoided in the organisation?
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