Internal Code: IAH262
Interview two nurses or midwives from any location or specialty who you consider to be leaders in the profession. (Please do not identify them in your written work unless they have given permission.) Integrate your interviews and findings from the literature to construct an essay that addresses the following question: How can leadership approaches, and a leader’s characteristics, influence practice change?
From week 4 you will be placed into groups of three to five students, to work on a collaborative project. The project outcome will be the development of a program for a day-long seminar on the topic of ‘practice development in nursing’. In this task, you will need to work together effectively to –
1. Identify and discuss different approaches for practice development/change in the workplace.
2. Determine a seminar theme, and produce all of the following:
A. abstracts for eight* seminar topics, each of 250 words in length
B. (*six abstracts for groups of three)
C. a seminar plan/program and associated materials of choice
D. a report on the project, setting out group processes and identifying group roles, responsibilities, and contributions to the project.
Allocate the work fairly
The assignment will be submitted as a single group paper, and each student will also submit a peer assessment of their colleagues’ contributions to the task. All members of the group will receive a grade commensurate with their contributions, as determined by the group and the marker.
(NB: Students allocated to the group who do not contribute to the project will not receive a mark for this assignment).
Incorporating interviews into text
Notes prepared by Associate Professor Christine Stirling
The key point about incorporating interview data into an essay is to present the information in such a way that it is clear how it relates to your argument. The interviews are to be used as a source of data to support your essay, similar to the way you use personal reflection to support your essay on leadership. So you are using the interviews to gather information that will help you address the essay topic.
There are different ways of incorporating quotes from interviews into your writing, and I have given examples below of three key approaches. Because you are only taking notes of your interviews rather than recording these, the third approach is probably best if you try to relay ‘what was said’, as it might be difficult to use longer quotes accurately. Alternatively, you might just comment within the text, for example, ‘Person A felt that mentoring provided many benefits to staff.’ To reference the interviewees, you can either as use some type of identifier, as per the examples below, or if the people you interview give permission you may want to reference them as a personal communication. If you choose to do this, the Harvard style is:
In-Text: (P Keating 1994, pers. comm., 2 May).
References: No reference list entry
Style 1 – An excerpt from Lloyd and Stirling (2011: 909).
Social exclusion has been shown to decrease prosocial behaviour (Twenge et al. 2007), thereby bringing negative consequences for both individuals and society as a whole. Helen’s experience of the sudden loss of her secure self made her reluctant to provide any further support to the services system, despite its obvious and urgent need for such support. She described an occasion on which she had visited her husband in residential care, and had encountered some other residents who were attempting unsuccessfully to plant a garden. She had joined the residents and helped them to achieve their goal, to the manifest delight of all concerned. Helen identified several other opportunities for her to contribute to the wellbeing of all residents of the facility, but was ‘pulling back’, fearful of becoming too involved:
Helen: I got back here and I cried, because I thought I could do so much, but if I get involved I’m going to be cut off again. It was really scary, because on the other hand, I had brought so much joy to them. They are so desperate for people to go and help, they are very short staffed. It’s afterwards. There’s no care for the carers afterwards. Another carer, Evelyn, had also entrusted her secure self to the dementia services system. Like many adult children of people with dementia, Evelyn’s sons had been unable to cope with the transformation of their father’s identity, and the support she received from respite care provided a bulwark against the tide of responsibilities that threatened to engulf her. One night, however, this supportive infrastructure vanished without warning. Evelyn was in tears as she recalled waiting in vain all night for the scheduled arrival of her husband’s respite carer, only to be informed when she called the following day that her entitlement to respite services had run out:
Evelyn: I was totally happy. I had had support from all sorts of organisations – respite care, day care, in-home respite, but at the critical moment it totally collapsed on me. The system collapsed. I was very, very desperate, and I needed help and this is the letter I got. Evelyn produced a formal letter advising her that she was no longer eligible for community services and needed to go back on a waiting list. This experience had left her distressed and resentful, particularly as she had received no warning that her entitlement had been about to expire. Her conclusion was that the responsibility for negotiating a system in which care and support is vital but rationed lies ultimately with already overburdened carers:
Evelyn: I was not the only one. All the other people on that list were ahead of me. People should never rely too much on services being available. They have to be aware of what is available and they have to think ahead. These examples highlight the potential ambiguity of gains derived from dementia community services and the risks they can pose for the secure selves of carers.
Style 2 – Excerpt from Stirling et al. (2012: online)
Data supported a second positional map which mapped participants’ views on whether the DA was useful for carers, and secondly whether the DA was useful as a tool for health professionals. Many participants felt that carers would benefit from the DA. For some – mostly carers and community nurses – the DA was useful to carers as a stand-alone item. The following quote details one community nurse’s perception that the DA provided information that helped carers negotiate the complex community service sector: ‘There are so many services out there, so many way of receiving services, and this really captures that, the advantages and disadvantages. It’s really great; it just puts it in a nutshell’ (Community Nurse 2). For carers, the way the decision aid highlighted the trajectory of dementia was also seen as very valuable, as seen in this career’s quote: ‘I really feel every carer needs one, it gives you the things you need to know and it’s an ongoing thing, dementia, and if you have a booklet like this it gives you some idea of what is
available’ (Carer 3). Carers related strongly to the vignettes, which in some cases, normalized their experiences to the extent that relieved them from guilt over respite decisions: ‘If I had had this DA when I first made the decision to put my husband in respite care, it would have made me feel better about the decision’ (Carer 8). Several carers expressed regret that they had not been able to access the DA earlier in their own caring experiences, as reflected in the following quote:
‘If I had done the carer stress test earlier I would have sought help earlier’ (Carer 6). Overall, the majority of carers and community nurses expressed a strong belief that the DA was useful to carers.
Style 3 – Excerpt from Orpin et al. (2012: 8)
At one level, each carer’s story and experience was unique; shaped by a complex mix of factors including PWD behaviours, their own coping skills and styles, the nature of the pre-existing relationship and the degree of match between support and need. While all carers were clearly finding the experience challenging, they varied widely in terms of how well they were coping. Carer A, a daughter caring for her mother, described her experience thus: ‘It’s just when you’re swamped, you’re drowning, you can’t, you can’t, you barely get your nose out of water and there’s another wave.’ Carer D, a son caring for his father, was much more sanguine: ‘I don’t know. At the moment it’s going all right and if it’s going all right, it’s going all right’ and Carer I was able to actually find some fun amongst the challenges of caring for her husband: ‘But it’s no good being cross . . . So we have a lot of fun. We play games really.’
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