301011 - Advanced Highway Infrastructures - Design of Highway Bridge Superstructure Systems - Engineering Report Writing Assessment Answer
301011 - Advanced Highway Infrastructures Engineering Report Writing Assessment Answer
The design bridge is illustrated using the twin bridges over Nambucca Flood Plain (BR14) as an example.
The twin bridges are nearly completed with each bridge carrying one-way traffic. The bridge A (on the northern carriageweay, Fig. 1(a)), is a road bridge with three spans (24.0 m + 26.0 m +22.0 m), as shown in Fig. 2. For bridge A, the road is designed to have two traffic lanes, as shown in Fig.3. The vehicle parapet is located on each side.
The bridge A is a beam bridge and the deck system is the cast-in-place reinforced concrete slab. Design the superstructure systems of the bridge A based on material properties prescribed below.
Material properties (Material properties, which are not given here, should be found in AS5100. 5 and AS5100. 6)
Reinforced concrete density = 25 kN/m3
Concrete density = 24 kN/m3
Density of bituminous wearing surfaces = 24.5 kN/m3
Thickness of bituminous wearing surfaces = 0.065 m
a) Select the deck supporting system. (It is recommended steel I beam, but the prestressed concrete beam is also permitted.)
b) Estimate the depths of structural members based on span/depth ratios.
Loads and Load Combinations
Design information and requirements:
Only structure dead loads, superimposed dead loads and vehicular traffic loads are considered in the load combinations. Regarding vehicular traffic loads, M1600 and W180 moving loads are considered to find the most critical case for the bridge.
a) Find the dead and superimposed loads. For the assessment of dead and superimposed loads, the following elements are considered: structural members, parapets and nonstructural elements such as bituminous wearing surfaces.
b) Determine load factors, reduction factors and load combination factor.
c) Determine load combinations for both ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state.
The structural analysis can be carried out either using the software package such as Space Gass or using beam-line simplified method. When the latter is used, the distribution factor for moment and shear can be determined according to AASHTO method. If the first method is used, the modelling file must be submitted.
The beams allow being designed as simply supported for structural dead loads, superimposed dead loads and vehicular traffic loads.
a) Decide whether the beams are simply supported (at piers) or continuous for loads.
b) Carry out a longitudinal analysis of the bridge to determine the envelope of maximum bending moments and shears. Plot the envelopes of moments and shears (both Fig. 4 (b) negative and positive) of interior beams (in Span 3). The ultimate design loads of the interior beams should be presented in a table.
c) Carry out a transverse analysis of the bridge deck. Plot the deck ultimate design moments diagram. The ultimate design value should be presented in a table.
Deck Slabs Design
a) Design for ultimate positive flexure.
b) Design for ultimate negative flexure.
c) Design for punching shear.
Design of Steel I beams (Interior Beams in Span 3)
a) Design for flexural capacity under the ultimate limit state.
b) Design for shear capacity under the ultimate limit state.
c) Check serviceability limit state.
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